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Vitesse d’obturation et portrait

Eh bien voila, nous voici à notre dernier article sur le triangle d’exposition sur la vitesse d’obturation ! Je vous invite à regarder plus en détail mes deux autres articles, si vous ne l’avez pas déjà fait, celui sur les ISO et celui sur l’ouverture, ils vont vous aider à me mieux comprendre comment fonctionne l’exposition en photographie. Car une photo mal exposée est une photo à la poubelle, bon on peut toujours la rattraper via logiciel de retouche mais ce n’est clairement pas le cas de figure idéal !

 

Qu’est-ce que la vitesse d’obturation ?

Cet élément est tout simplement la durée pendant laquelle l’obturateur reste ouvert. Schématiquement parlant, et c’est toujours plus simple, admettons que vous avez un verre et que vous souhaitez remplir ce dernier avec l’eau du robinet. Trois cas : dans le premier cas de figure, vous laissez couler l’eau pendant une minute, dans l’autre deux minutes et dans le dernier trois minutes. Pour le premier, l’eau arrive à la moitié du verre, nous avons laissé trop peu d’eau couler dans le verre, dans le deuxième il est arrive juste à la contenance idéal et dans le dernier, il a carrément débordé.

Eh bien, cela est exactement pareil en photographie. Cette première photo n’aura pas recu assez de lumière pour que la composition soit bonne, elle sera donc sous-exposée et pour la troisième, elle aura recu trop de lumière car le capteur a été laissé ouvert trop longtemps et la photo est donc sur-exposée.

Il faut également savoir que les vitesses d’obturation augmentent (ou diminuent) en gros de moitié quand vous la modifier d’un cran. Pour être plus clair, voici l’explication en ex avec des vitesses d’obturation : 1s – 1/2s – 1/4s – 1/8s – 1/15s – 1/30s – 1/60s – 1/125s – 1/250s – 1/500s et ce, jusqu’à 1/8000s sur la plupart des boîtiers reflexs !

 

Comment la régler ?

Eh bien, pour ce faire, il vous suffit de soit passer par le mode priorité vitesse (Tv ou S) soit par le mode manuel (M). Le mode priorité vitesse va vous permettre de uniquement jouer sur votre vitesse d’obturation, l’appareil se chargera automatiquement de définir vos ISO ainsi que votre ouverture afin que la photo soit correctement exposée. Avec le mode manuel, comme vu dans les précédents articles, vous serez obligés de régler vous-même les trois éléments pour que vous exposiez bien votre photo. Le mode priorité vitesse, au même titre que le mode priorité ouverture (Av ou A) est toujours bien plus simple à utiliser que le mode manuel. Cependant, le mode manuel sera plus adapté à la photo d’intérieur avec des sources lumineuses que vous choisissez, comme en photo de studio en l’occurrence.

 

Pourquoi jouer avec la vitesse d’obturation ?

Celle-ci va vous permettre de donner l’effet que vous souhaitez à la photo. Avec une vitesse d’obturation très rapide, comme 1/1000s, vous allez figer des mouvements. Dans le cas de la photo de portrait, vous pourrez par ex capter le mouvement si vous demandez au modèle de sauter. Dans la photo, on n’aura pas cette impression de vitesse, car la personne sera très nette sur la photo. Elle sera totalement figée, comme si l’on prenait un portrait posé.

 

Vitesse d’obturation 1/3200s, extrêmement rapide, permet de figer toutes les moindres gouttes de l’eau

Vitesse d'obturation

 

Dans le cas d’une vitesse d’obturation basse, comme 1/2s, vous aurez là une impression de mouvement car l’obturateur n’aura pas été assez rapide pour figer le mouvement. On aura ici, une traînée sur la photo, on aura cette perception que la personne est en mouvement. Cela se dénomine “flou cinétique”, une photo est située un peu plus bas.

 

Les flous dus à la vitesse d’obturation

Des vitesses trop basses vont avoir la conséquence de créer deux types de flou. Le premier est négatif et non voulu (en général) et le deuxième apporte quelque chose à la photo et est voulu.

Le flou de bougé

Celui-ci est celui que vous ne souhaitez pas avoir. En général, c’est parce que votre vitesse d’obturation est trop basse par rapport à la situation. Nous sommes des êtres humains et nous bougeons facilement lorsque nous prenons une photo même lorsque nous prenons notre respiration. Il faut noter que celui-ci est directement lié à votre focale, plus votre focale est longue et plus il va falloir une vitesse d’obturation élevée.

Voici la base : 1 / Longueur de votre focale x Coefficient

Vous savez qu’en fonction des capteurs, il y a différents coefficients. Les capteurs FF en un coefficient de 1 (base de référence). Les APS-C de Nikon ont un coefficient de 1.5, ceux de Canon de 1.6 et les hybrides micro quatre tiers en ont un de 2.

Ce flou est donc corrigeable en utilisant une vitesse d’obturation suffisamment élevée. Pour un 100mm on veillera à au moins utiliser 1/100s dans le cas d’un capteur FF et 1/160s dans le cas d’un capteur APS-C. Autre moyen de le limiter, la stabilisation d’image qu’offre certains objectifs, vous pouvez facilement le voir via l’appellation « IS ». Celui-ci peut réduire jusqu’à 4 fois la vitesse. Dans notre cas du 100mm, avec un FF vous pourrez prendre des photos avec une vitesse de 1/25s, ce qui est très pratique et permet de ne pas monter trop haut dans les ISO, surtout quand les conditions de lumière ne sont pas au maximum !

 

Le flou cinétique (ou de mouvement)

Celui-ci est un flou voulu, où l’on fait exprès d’avoir de faibles vitesses d’obturation afin d’avoir ce fameux effet, vous savez celui qui fait des traînées de lumière ou donne une allure d’étoile aux lumières la nuit. Pour le réaliser, vous aurez besoin de vitesses d’obturation basses (à partir de 1/30s jusqu’à 30s) et vous aurez besoin d’un trépied également. Ceci étant car il est tout juste impossible de ne pas bouger lorsque l’on tient l’appareil à main levée avec ce genre de vitesse ! Dans le pire des cas, si vous n’en avez pas, vous pouvez bloquer votre appareil sur un muret ou bien sur le sol. Mais bon, pas top pour les prises de vue, les angles de vue 😛 😛 Vous pouvez également visser un filtre ND sur votre objectif pour faire encore diminuer la vitesse d’obturation et donc accentuer cet effet de mouvement. Cela a son utilité lorsque la luminosité est encore importante, et qu’il ne serait pas possible d’obtenir l’effet sans ce dernier.

 

Vitesse lente, 2s donc permet de créer un flou de mouvement

Vitesse d'obturation

Et en portrait ?

Mais comment peut-on l’aborder en portrait ? En portrait, je vous avoue que la vitesse d’obturation n’est pas un critère essentiel pour mener à bien une photo. Très peu de photographe utilise le mode priorité vitesse en photographie de portrait. Tout simplement car nous préférons jouer sur la profondeur de champs via l’ouverture plutôt que de jouer sur la vitesse qui n’ajoute pas grand chose à la photo de portrait. Il est bon d’utiliser des vitesses très rapide si vous voulez par ex shooter votre modèle en train de sauter, ou bien en train de retourner son visage pour donner un certain effet avec des cheveux. Effectivement ici, il faudra privilégier les vitesses au-dessus de 1/500s facilement.

Avoir des vitesses lentes en photographie de portrait n’a pas vraiment d’utilité, à part si vous voulez montrer dans votre photo un effet de mouvement, qui pourrait ajouter un plus à votre photo.

Cependant, quand vous utilisez un flash, il faut bien veiller à être en adéquation avec la vitesse de synchronisation. Cette valeur se situe en général entre 1/60 et 1/250s. Si vous êtes en dessous ou au-dessus, votre photo sera noire dans la plupart des cas. Car en général, vous avez des réglages en studio qui font si vous n’utilisez pas de lumière artificielle, tel que le minimum d’ISO, une faible ouverture pour avoir de la netteté sur l’ensemble de l’image, en ajoutant à cela que le studio est général assez sombre car peu éclairé et en intérieur. Cela dépend après de votre objectif, mais il est très fréquent de voir les photographes professionnels paramétrer à 1/160s leur vitesse d’obturation !

Voilà c’est à peu près tout pour cette partie sur la vitesse d’obturation, n’hésitez pas à me dire si l’article vous aura été utile et moi je vous dis à bientôt, merci à vous 🙂 🙂

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